TRING IN 1855


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KELLY’S POST OFFICE DIRECTORY, 1855.
HERTFORDSHIRE: ENTRY FOR TRING.


TRING is a parish, market town and railway station, in Dacorum Hundred, 7 miles south-east of Aylesbury, and 4½ north-west of Berkhamstead, on the road to Aylesbury.  The town is neat, well paved and lighted, of ancient origin, on Icknield Street [Ed. − Akeman Street?], near which Roman remains have been found.  The London and North Western railway station (31½ miles from London) is 1¾ miles from the town and the Grand Junction Canal passes near.  The parish contains 7,390 acres, and having a population, in 1851, of 4,746, including Long Marston and Wilstone.  The population of the town is 3,218.  There is a market on Fridays, and fairs on Easter Monday and Old Michaelmas Day.  The chief business is in canvas weaving, straw plaiting, silk throwing, brewing, and parchment making.  There is a bank.  The church dedicated to St. Peter and St. Paul, is ancient and elegant, in the perpendicular style of architecture, with some old monuments and a massive tower, embattled, which has been restored, and has 6 bells.  The living is in perpetual curacy, and is valued at £180 per annum, in the gift of Christ Church, Oxford, and bishopric of Rochester; the incumbent is the Rev. John Yelloly, M.A.  The parsonage house is a beautiful Elizabethan structure.  There are meeting-houses for Baptists, General and Particular.  The Market-house is not remarkable.  A society, called the Tring Building Society, has lately been established here; it holds meetings every fortnight, at the Commercial Hall, High street, for furthering its objects, and is in a thriving condition.  The County court for this district is held at Aylesbury, Bucks.  There are a Mechanics’ institute and National schools for boys and girls.  A Court Leet and Court baron for the manor of Tring are held.  LITTLE TRING and TRING GROVE are hamlets.  The railway station is at PENDLEY.  WILSTONE is 2 miles north-west; MISWELL, 1 mile north-west; DUNSLEY, half a mile east; HASTOE CROSS, 1½ miles south.


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PRIVATE RESIDENTS 

Brown William, esq. Goldfield cottage,
    West end
Butcher Frederick, esq. High street
Butcher Thomas, jun. esq. Frogmore ho
Butcher Thomas, sen. esq. Frogmore ho
Dewsbury Peter Richard, esq. High st
Edwards James, esq. High street.
Faithful G. L. esq. High street
Frost Rev. William Mumford, B.A.
    [curate], West end

Glover Rev. Richard [Baptist], Ake-
    man street
Gotto Mr. Frederick, West end
Griffin Mrs. Mary Ann, Elm house
Gutteridge Mrs. Ann, Frogmore street
Honour Mrs. Rachael, Frogmore street
Kingham Mrs. Mary, High street
Knight Misses, West end
Moseley Mr. John, West end
Olney Daniel, esq. Dunsley

Pasquin Mr. Samuel, White house,
    West end
Pope Edward, esq. High street
Sexton Rev. Wm. [Baptist], High at
Shenstone Mrs. Ann, High street:
Skelton Rev. Wm. [Baptist], West end
Warren Rev. Josiah Stevens [Baptist],
    West end
Williams Rev. James, M.A. Tring park
Woods Rev. Wm. [Baptist], West end


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TRADERS

Adams Henry, shopkeeper, Frogmore street
Alderman Thomas, tailor & draper, Akeman street
Amsden John, beer retailer & plait dealer, Frogmore street
Andrews James, builder, Akeman street
Bailey Thomas, grocer, High street
Baldwin James, tailor, Frogmore street
Ball James, upholsterer & shopkeeper, High street
Barber Benjamin, beer retailer & shopkeeper, Akeman at
Barber Edmund, wood turner & painter, Akeman street
Barber George, beer retailer, West end
Bette David, boot & shoe maker, High street
Bird Ebenezer Charles, bookseller, stationer, printing &
    stamp office, High street
Birdsey Charles, shopkeeper, Akeman street
Brandon John, boot & shoe maker, Frogmore street
Brinkman William, cooper, High street:
Brittain Philip, wood turner, Akeman street
Brown John. Tring brewery, Wine & spirit merchant &
    maltster High street
Brown William, auctioneer & estate agent, Goldfield cot-
    tage, West: end
Burman James, saddler, High street
Burr George, hair dresser, High street
Butcher Thomas, fishmonger, Akeman street
Cato William, canvas manufacturer, Park street west
Chapman Alfred, beer retailer, Frogmore street
Chapman John, chemist &; druggist, & agent for the Norwich
    fire & life office, High street
Chappin William, shopkeeper, Park street
Cherry James, superintendent at Grand Junction canal
    company’s works, Bulbourne
Cheshire Joseph, baker, West end
Clark George, boot & shoe maker, New mill
Clark James, beer retailer, West end
Clark Joseph, farmer, Parkley hill farm
Clark Lucy (Mrs.), ‘King’s Arms,’& shopkeeper, West end
Clarke Jane (Mrs.), ‘George,‘ Frogmore street
Clement Thomas & John, watch & clock makers. iron-
    mongers, & agents to the General life & fire office, High st
Coleman Sarah (Mrs.), ladies’ boarding school, Frogmore st
Coughtrey Harriet (Mrs.), greengrocer, Akeman street.
Crawley William, ironfounder & wheelwright, West end
Crocket Samuel, shopkeeper, Frogmore street
Crouch Daniel, farmer, Miswell farm
Cyster William, beer retailer & farmer, Little Tring
Dancer James. tailor, Brook end
Dawe James, farmer, Park street
Decker James, excise officer, West end
Dewsbury Peter Richard, surgeon, High street
Dolt John, tailor, High street
Edwards James, surgeon, High street
Elliman Samuel, draper, High street
Elliman Thomas, draper & agent for the County fire &
    Provident life, High street
Elliott William, saddler, High street
Evans David, silk mill
Faithfull George Lockton, solicitor, High street
Faulkner Robert, beer retailer & wharfinger, Bulbourne
Finch Charles, beer retailer, Brook end
Fleet Thomas, plait dealer, West end
Fleet Thomas, sen. shopkeeper, West end
Foskett John, shopkeeper, Frogmore street
Foskett Richard, boot & shoe maker, Frogmore street
Frowd Joseph, tea dealer, West end
Gates Thomas, bookseller & stationer, High street
Glover & Gates, grocers, High street
Goodson William, blacksmith, High street
Gotto Frederick, surveyor, West end
Gower Ann (Mrs.), fellmonger, Frogmore street
Gower James, shopkeeper, Albert place
Grace Carter, maltster & corn dealer, Akeman street
Grace Charles, baker, Akeman street
Grace Charles, ironmonger, Akeman street
Griffin Charlotte (Mrs.), farmer, Tring folly farm
Griffin William, broker & builder, High street
Grover James, miller, Tring mill
Hayward Frances ( Mrs.), greengrocer, High street
Hedges John, plumber, painter & glazier, Frogmore street
Honour James, builder, Akeman street
Honour Sarah (Mrs), ‘Bell,’ High street
Kennings William, saddler, Akeman street
Keys John Lewis, classical & commercial school, Cameron
    house, West end
Kindell Francis, boot & shoe maker, Akeman street

Kindell John, boot & shoe maker, High street
King Edward, shopkeeper, West end
King John rope & twine spinner, Park street
Knight John, plumber, painter & glazier, & china & glass
    warehouse, High street
Lake Thomas, boot & shoe maker, Akeman street
Liddington James, bear retailer & shopkeeper, Frogmore st;
Liddington Seabrook, beer retailer, High street
Limbrey John, ironmonger, High street
Lines Richard, beer retailer, Frogmore street
Marcham Joseph, seedsman, Akeman street
Mead & Bailey, millers, hay & straw dealers, coal merchants,
    carriers & manure merchants, Tring wharf
Mead John, jun. butcher & farmer, High street
Mead William, farmer, Tring wharf
Meager Thorn, beer retailer, Akeman street
Mills Eliza (Miss), seminary, Dunsley cottage
Missenden Anna (Mrs), dealer in seeds, Frogmore street
Montague Elizabeth (Mm), postmistress, High street
Montague Joseph, timber merchant, West end
Morgan Caroline (Mrs ), milliner & dressmaker, High street
Moulder Joseph, boot & shoe maker, Frogmore street
Newins Job, smith & farrier, Akeman street
Nicholson & Oliver, paper & straw bonnet manufacturers,
    High street
Nicholson Thomas Richard, draper & paper & straw bonnet
    manufacturer, High street
Norman Charles, tailor, Frogmore street
Norman John Charles, shopkeeper, Akeman street
Norris James, grocer, High street
Norris Joseph, hairdresser, High street
Oakley John, ‘Royal Oak,’ Akeman street
Olney Sarah (Miss), brewer, Akeman street
Olney Thomas, beer retailer, Akeman street
Osborn John, carpenter & builder, Frogmore street
Osborn William, shopkeeper & baker, Brook end
Parker Joseph, silk mills
Parkes Alexander Thomas, land agent, auctioneer & sur-
    veyor, High street
Philbey Jane (Mrs.), Green Man commercial inn, High st
Philbey Joseph, baker, Akeman street
Pike David, manager of gas works, Brook end
Pope Edward, surgeon, High street.
Price William, beer retailer, Frogmore street
Putnam Thomas, baker & mealman, Frogmore street
Rance George, butcher, Frogmore street
Rodwell Robert, ‘Queens Arms,’ & boot & shoe maker,
    New mill
Rogers Joseph, cooper & ironmonger, Frogmore street
Rose Charles Brooks, watchmaker & jeweller, High street
Row Fanny (Mrs.), shopkeeper, Akeman street
Rowbotham Henry Sherratt, manager of silk mills, West end
Rymell William, hairdresser & glazier, Akeman street 
Sallary Samuel, straw bonnet manufacturer, Frogmore st
Seaton Augustus & Son, butchers, High street
Sexton William, tea dealer, High street 
Sheerman James, Kings Arms commercial inn, & excise
    office, High street
Smith Edward, tailor, Akeman street
Somes John, farmer, Tring grove
Southernwood Eleazer, farmer, Tring grove
Stevens Samuel, shopkeeper, Brook and
Stevenson William, shopkeeper, West and
Stockdale James Sowerby, solicitor, Akeman street
Thorp Robert, grocer, High street
Tompkins Henry, ‘Plough,’ High street ,
Tompkins Mary (Mrs) & Sons, ironmongers, braziers &
    bakers, High street
Tompkins Ann (Mrs.), ‘Old Robin Hood,’ High street
Tompkins Mary (Mrs.), ‘Britannia,’ West end
Tompkins Rachel (Mrs), beer retailer, West end
Walker Christopher, farmer, the Wick
Warcup Elisabeth (Mrs), grocer, High street
Wilcox William, draper, clothier, & agent for the European
life office, High street.
Woodhouse John Thomas, beer retailer, West end
Woodhouse Wm. engineer at Little Tring gas works,
    Little Tring
Woodman Richard & Son, butchers, High street.
Woodman the Misses, day school, Akeman street
Woodman Edward, corndealer, High street
Woodman Thomas, farmer, Dunsley farm
Wrighton Daniel, butcher, Akeman street
Young Matthew, beer retailer, High street


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POST OFFICE. − Mrs. Elizabeth Montague, postmistress, High street. Money orders are granted & paid at this office. Letters from London arrive at 10 p.m. delivered the following morning at ½ past 7; dispatched ½ past 2 a.m.; box closes at ½ past 8p.m.; letters may be forwarded by adding an extra stamp until 10. Letters arrive also from London at 11 a.m.; dispatched at ½ past 11 a.m.; box closes at 9 a.m. letters may he posted until 10

by adding an extra stamp.  Letters from Aylesbury arrive at 9 p.m.; dispatched ½ past 4 a.m.  Letters from Wendover & Princes Risborough arrive at ¼ to 9 p.m.; dispatched ½ past 4 a.m.  Letters arrive from Aston Clinton at 9 p.m.; dispatched ½ past 4 a.m.  Ivinghoe & Aldbury letters arrive 8 p.m.; dispatched 6 a.m.

BANKERS. — Thomas Butcher & Son, High street; draw all Dimsdale, Drewett, Fowler & Barnard


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INSURANCE AGENTS: −

Britannia Life, G. L. Faithfull, esq. High street
British & Foreign Alliance Fire & Life, Alexander
    Thomas Parkes, High street
County Hailstorm, A. T. Parkes
Clerical, Medical & General, Ebenezer Chas. Bird, High st
County Fire & Provident Life, Thomas Elliman, High st
European Life, William Wilcox, High street
General Life & Fire, Thomas Clement & Son, High street
London Union, James Sowerby, Stockdale, Akeman street
Norwich Union Fire & Life, John Chapman, High street
Official & General Life, Henry Tompkins, High street
Palladium Life, James Norris, High street ‘
Phoenix Fire, James Norris
Royal Exchange Fire & Life, Knight & Andrews, High st
Royal Naval & Military Life, Mark Young, Prospect ho
Scottish Widows’, Frederick Butcher (Bank), High street
Sun Fire, William Brown, High street

PUBLIC ESTABLISHMENTS: −

Excise Office, ‘Rose & Crown,’ High street
Stamp Office, Ebenezer Charles Bird, High street 
Tring Ford Engines (Grand Junction Canal), William
    Woodhouse, engineer, Little Tring
Mechanics’ Institute, High street, Mr. Carter Grace, sec
Depositary for Books for the Christian Knowledge
    Society
, John Kindell, High street

PUBLIC OFFICERS: −

Clerks to the Magistrates of Bucks & Herts, G. L.
    Faithfull, esq. High street
Superintendent Registrar of Births, Deaths & Mar-
    iages for Great Berkhampstead Union
, G. L. Faith-
    full, esq, High street
Certifying Surgeon of Factories, Peter R. Dewsbury,
    esq. High street:
Surgeon of the Second District of Great Berkhampstead
    Union, Peter R. Dewshury, esq. High street 

Surgeon to Great Berkhampstead & Aylesbury Union,
    Edward Pope, esq, High street
Registrar of Births & Deaths for Tring District, Mark
    Young, Prospect house
Deputy Registrar of Births & Deaths for Tring Dis-
    trict
, Thomas Fleet, jun. West end
Relieving Officer for Great Berkhampstead Union,
    Garnet Jones, West end
Secretary to the Tring Agricultural Association, Wil-
    liam Brown, High street
Secretary to the Tring Benefit Building Society, & to
    the Tring Association the Prosecution of Felons, &
    Tring Gas & Coke Company, Alexander Thomas Parkes,
    High street
National School, West end, Thomas Reynolds, master;
    Miss Dinah Wallis, mistress
POSTING HOUSE — ‘Rose & Crown,’ High street
OMNIBUS from the ‘Rose & Crown,’ High street, to meet
    every train
CARRIERS TO :—

ASTON CLINTON — Horwood, from ‘Rose & Crown,’
    saturday, 10 morning
AYLESBURY — Elliott, from ‘Rose & Crown,’ thurs. 3 aft
AYLESBURY & QUAINTON — Slade, from ‘Bell inn’,
    friday, 12 noon
LONDON — Hedges, from ‘Plough inn’, daily, per railway,
    7 morning, sunday excepted; Horwood, from ‘Rose &
    Crown
,’ thursday, 11 morning; Slade, from ‘Bell inn’,
    wednesday, 4 afternoon
LONG MARSTON — Rodwell, from ‘Green Man,’ friday,
    4  aft
WADDESDON — Crook, from ‘Bell inn’, thursday,
    3 afternoon
WATER CARRIERS. — 5 Wharf, Paddington, Mead &
    Bailey, 3 days per week


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HERTFORDSHIRE IN 1855


HERTFORDSHIRE, sometimes shortened into HERTS, is an inland shire, in the south-east of England, surrounded by Middlesex, Essex, Cambridgeshire, Bedfordshire, and Buckinghamshire.  It is of irregular form, of no peculiar natural features, and lies between 51° 36’ and 52° 5’ of north latitude, and 0° 13’ east and 0° 45’ west longitude.  It is one of the smallest shires in England, both for size and population, though by no means inconsiderable.  Its area is about 630 square miles, or 393,951 acres, and its population, in 1851, was 167,856.  It is only the thirty­fifth shire in England in size.  Although the shire town is within 20 miles of London, yet the shire hardly partakes of the metropolitan character, but is almost exclusively agricultural.  The greatest length, which is from Royston to Rickmansworth, from north-east to south-west, is 39 miles; and the greatest breadth, from Hitchin to Waltham Cross, 26 miles.

Hertfordshire belongs to the London chalk basin.  The extreme south consists of London clay, then comes the plastic clay; but the northern part of the shire, beyond Sawbridgeworth, Ware, Hertford, Hatfield, St. Alban’s, and Rickmansworth, is chalk.  The district is wavy, but can hardly be said to partake of a hilly character, the greatest rise being in the Chalk Downs, about 908 feet high.  These Chalk Downs are the continuation of the Chiltern Hills, and bound the shire to the extreme north.  The climate is mild and soothing, and the country, being well wooded and tilled, is very picturesque and pleasing.  The mineral characteristics of the district are neither varied nor important, and the medicinal springs are few; they are at Barnet, Northaw, Cuffley, and Hemel Hempstead. Chalk is burnt for lime, and bricks are made.

Hertford is well watered by numerous and navigable streams, on which are many mills.  The rivers are principally small feeders of the Thames, except those in the north, which flow towards the Ouse.  The Stort forms the south-east boundary for a considerable distance, being navigable in its whole length, and passing by Bishop’s Stortford and Sawbridgeworth to join the Lea.  The Lea traverses the county from east to west, rising at Leagrave, in Bedfordshire, and pursuing a total course, till its junction with the Thames, of 50 miles.  It is navigable at Hertford. Entering the shire, near Harpenden, it passes near Hatfield to below Hertingfordbury, where it receives the Maran, or Mimram, a mill stream.  At Hertford it receives the Beane, a mill stream, flowing from north to south, and soon after the Rib, also flowing from north to south, turning many mills, receiving the Quin, and passing Buntingford.  The Lea next receives the Ash, and ultimately the Stort, and pursues its navigable course along the eastern border of the county, by Hoddesdon, to Waltham Abbey.  The Colne, the other chief river of the south, rises between Barnet and Elstree, and proceeds to Colney Street, where it receives a small brook; and a little lower down, the Verlam or Muse, which passes by St. Alban’s, turning some mills.  It then passes Watford and Rickmansworth, and receives the Gade, which is fed by the Bulbourn from Berkhampstead, and soon after the Chess.  The Gade and the Lower Colne are nearly absorbed by the Grand Junction Canal.  Some of the head springs of the Thames rise near Tring.  A feeder of the Ivel rises near Hexton.  The Hiz, passing near Hitchin, the Oughton, and the Pirral, are feeders or the Ouse, flowing north into Bedfordshire, and are inconsiderable streams.  The Rhea, or Rhee, rises near Ashwell, and is a feeder of
the Cam.

The New River is an artificial cut, made to convey water to London; it was begun in 1608, and runs along
the valley of the Lea, taking its chief supplies from Amwell and Chadwell, two springs near Hertford.

The Grand Junction Canal comes into Hertfordshire, near Tring, and soon enters the valley of the Gade, and afterwards that of the Colne, which it follows through Middlesex, till it joins the Thames, passing by Tring, Berkhampstead, Hemel Hempstead, and Rickmansworth, with branches to Aylesbury, Wendover and Watford.

The railways are the London and North Western, Great Northern, and Eastern Counties (Cambridge) line.  The London and North Western proceeds through West Hertfordshire, passing by Bushey, 16 miles from London, Watford 17¾, King’s Langley 21, Boxmoor or Hemel Hempstead 24½, Berkhampstead 28, and Tring 31¾, at each of which places is a station; just beyond Tring is the Aylesbury branch.  The Dunstable branch touches the north border. The Great Northern Railway, opened in 1850, runs through Mid-Hertfordshire, by Barnet, 91 miles from London, Potter’s Bar 12¾, Hatfield 17¾, Welwyn 22, Stevenage 28½, and Hitchin 32, to Shefford 37, sending off a branch from Hitchin by Baldock 36½, Ashwell 40½, to Royston 44¾.  The Eastern Counties line passes through East Hertfordshire, by Waltham Abbey, 14¾ miles from London, Cheshunt 16¼, Broxbourn (Hoddesdon) 19, Royston 22, Burnt Mill 24½, Harlow 26¼, Sawbridgeworth 28½, and Bishop’s Stortford 32¼, at each of which is a station.  A branch runs from Hoddesdon to Hertford, with stations at Rye House, 20 miles, St. Margaret’s 22, Ware 24¼, and Hertford 26. By these railways there is rapid communication with London and all parts of the country; and there are many telegraph stations.

Hertfordshire is most known for its husbandry, and for the growth of the best white wheat.  Though the husbandry is rather slovenly, many lands are well tilled.  The shire yields, besides grain, turnips, &c., vegetables and hay for the London market; also apples, cherries, currants, and strawberries.  There is a good deal of coppice and wood.  The nurseries are famous for the growth of roses, which carry off all the prizes in London.  Many cattle, sheep, pigs and poultry are fed for London.

The manufactures are – the straw plait, employing 5,000 persons.  This number includes bleachers, cleaners, brazilian hat makers, and dealers.  The silk manufacture employs 500 persons; the paper manufacture employs 350 persons; the malt trade, brewing, tanning, currying, parchment making, brick and tile milking, pipe making and pottery, canvas making and weaving, sail making, coach making, lace making and type founding are other manufactures; the number of millers is large.

Herts is divided into eight Hundreds, which are very much scattered, and about 130 parishes and townships. The Hundreds are – Braughin, Broadwater, Cashio or Liberty of St. Alban’s, Dacorum, Edwinstree, Hertford, Hitchin and Pirton, and Odsey.  Herts is in the Home Circuit and London bankruptcy jurisdiction, and is governed by a Lord Lieutenant.  There is a separate commission of the peace for St. Alban’s Liberty.

Herts returns 3 members to Parliament, and Hertford 2; St. Alban’s is disfranchised.  The shire is mostly in the bishopric of Rochester and archbishopric of Canterbury.  Hertford is the shire town and place of election; the sessions and assizes are holden there.  At St. Alban’s, sessions are held for the Liberty of St. Alban’s.  The polling places are – Hertford, Stevenage, Buntingford, Bishop’s Stortford, Hatfield, Hemel Hempstead, and Hoddesdon.  The Poor Law Unions are – Ware, St. Alban’s, Watford, Berkhampstead, Hemel Hempstead, Hitchin, Hertford, Buntingford, Barnet, Hatfield, Royston, Bishop’s Stortford, and Welwyn.  Some of these Unions extend into other counties; and some parishes in Herts are included in Unions in Middlesex, Bucks, Essex, &c.

Hertford and St. Alban’s are boroughs and towns of 10,000 people; the market towns are, including these,
15; namely, Ashwell, Baldock, Barnet, Berkhampstead, Bishop’s Stortford, Hatfield, Hemel Hempstead, Hitchin, Hoddesdon, Royston, Tring, Ware, and Watford.  The markets of Buntingford and Rickmansworth have fallen into disuse. Other towns are Cheshunt, Welwyn, Stevenage, King’s Langley, Braughin, Offley, Ashwell, Sawbridgeworth, and Hadham.

The population of Herts was: –



The increase in the last period was 7 per cent.  The population is nearly all English.

The history of Hertford presents few features of importance.  After the Euskardians had been driven out, it was held by the Welsh and Belgians.  At the time of Cæsars inroad, it seems to have belonged to the Belgian tribe of the Cateuchlani; and perhaps the Trinobantes held part.  The Romans having taken the country, had a capital municipium at Verulamium, being one of their chief towns in Britain.  Watling Street passed through it, and roads branched all around.  In the year 61, Boadicea, at the head of a number of British savages, captured the town and slaughtered the population.  By the Romans, Herts was included in the province of Flavia Cæsariensis.  They had stations at Ad Fines on Ermin Street (probably at Braughin), and at Bishop’s Stortford, Royston and Cheshunt.  On Icknield Street they had a camp at Wilbury Hill.

On the English taking the country, it seems to have first formed a commonwealth under the name of the North Saxons, and was afterwards shared between the kingdoms of Essex or the East Saxons, and Mercia or the Mid-English; and it is thought the late boundary between the bishoprics of London and Lincoln formed the boundary of the kingdom.  The English settlers were mostly of the same clans as those in Middlesex and Essex.  The great Kings of the Middle English dwelt in the shire.  It afterwards took the name of Hartingfordshire, from the tribe of the Hartings, who settled in its head town.  It is remarkable for the number of buries, showing it was thickly settled by the English.  There is a bury in each township, commonly a mile away from the old homestead, now the town or hamlet.  Many places are named after the Danes.  In 896 a severe contest took place in the county, between King Alfred and the Danes.  In the wars of the Roses three great battles were fought here: in 1455, at St. Alban’s, when the Lancasterians were overthrown; in 1461, at St. Alban’s, when the Yorkists were overthrown; and in 1468, at Barnet, when the Lancasterians were overthrown.

The number of churches and places of worship of the Church of England in 1851, in Hertfordshire, was 162; of the Independents, 47; General Baptists, 3; Particular Baptists, 28; other Baptists, 13; Society of Friends, 7; Unitarians, 2; Wesleyans, 46; Primitive Methodists, 14; Lady Huntingdon’s, 6; other congregations, 8; Roman Catholics, 4; Catholic and Apostolic Church, 2; Latter Day Saints, or Mormons, 5. The total is 347.

In Hertfordshire, in 1851, the proportion of Day scholars to the population was 14 per cent., being above the average.  In the last ten years the public schools were increased 50 per cent.  The number of scholars stood thus:–




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