TRING IN 1874


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KELLY’S POST OFFICE DIRECTORY, 1874.
HERTFORDSHIRE: ENTRY FOR TRING.


TRING is a parish, market town, polling place for the county, and railway station, in Dacorum hundred, union of Berkhampstead, Aylesbury county court district, rural deanery of Berkhampstead, archdeaconry of St. Albans, and diocese of Rochester, 7 miles south-east from Aylesbury, and 4½ north-west from Berkhampstead, on the road to Aylesbury: the town is of ancient origin, and stands on a site in close proximity to Icknield Street [Ed. – Akeman Street?], near which Roman remains have been found.  The London and North Western Railway station (31¾ miles from London) is a mile and three quarters from the town (in the parish of Aldbury), and the Grand Junction Canal passes near.  A Local Board of Health was established in February, 1859, consisting of 9 members.  The church of SS. Peter and Paul is ancient and elegant: it is in the Perpendicular style, and has chancel, nave, and aisles, with a massive embattled tower with 6 bells, and a very handsome porch, and contains some old monuments.  The register dates from the middle of the sixteenth century.  The living is a vicarage, yearly value £300, with residence, in the gift of Christ Church, Oxford, and held by the Rev. Arthur Frederick Pope, M.A., late student of Christ Church.  Here are schools for boys, girls, and infants; also chapels for General and Particular Baptists.  A market is held on Friday, which in the early part of the day is attended by hundreds of young women from the neighbouring villages, who obtain their living by making straw plait, to meet the buyers who come from Luton and other parts; and fairs on Easter Monday and Old Michaelmas Day.  The Market House is in the centre of the main street.  There is a Mechanics’ Institute, a large Commercial Hall, and an Assembly Room, used for public and general purposes.  The chief business is in canvas weaving, straw plaiting, silk throwing and weaving, and brewing. £152, the produce of several charities, is distributed yearly in bread and fuel.  Tring Park, the property of Baron Lionel de Rothschild, and residence of Nathaniel Meyer de Rothschild, esq., is pleasantly situated, enjoying lovely woodland scenery, with undulating slopes, and richly timbered on all sides.  Baron Lionel de Rothschild is lord of the manor, and chief landowner.  The soil, which rests on the lower chalk formation, varies considerably.  The parish contains 7,390 acres; gross estimated rental, £27,954; rateable value, £20,849; and had a population in 1871 of 5,076, including Long Marston and Wilstone, while that of the town only is 3,283.

Parish Clerk, Thomas Tompkins.


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LITTLE TRING and TRING GROVE are hamlets.  At Little Tring, 1 mile from Tring, are the Grand Junction Canal Water Works: it is the highest water level in England, namely, 405 feet above the sea, a trifle higher than the summit of St. Paul’s, London: there are 55 locks between Northchurch and the Thames.

LONG MARSTON is a hamlet and ecclesiastical parish, formed in 1867, 3¾ miles north-west from Tring, 4½ east from Aylesbury, and 38 from London, in Dacorum hundred and Berkhampstead union, partly in Buckinghamshire and partly in Herts, near the Aylesbury Railway and Canal.  Passengers on the Aylesbury line of railway are taken up and set down at Long Marston Gates.  The church of All Saints is a small Norman structure, consisting of chancel, nave, and castellated tower in which is 1 bell.  The living is a vicarage, in the patronage of the vicar of Tring, and held by the Rev. William Caldwell Masters, M.A., of Magdalen College, Oxford.  A vicarage house is now (1874) being built.  Here are Baptist and Wesleyan chapels.  The soil is loam, chalk, and clay.  The crops are wheat, oats, and barley.  BETLOW is a lordship within the hamlet.  The area is 2,138 acres; and population of Marston, including Gublecot and Betlow lordship, in 1871, was 502.

Parish Clerk, Richard Read.
Railway Station, John Downs, station master.


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WILSTONE is a small hamlet and chapelry to Tring, from which it is 2 miles north-west and 6½ east from Aylesbury. The village is pleasantly situated in a valley under the hills, on the Aylesbury Canal.  Straw plaiting is the principal employment of the females here.  The chapel which formerly stood here was destroyed by the Parliamentary army under Cromwell.  The National school is licensed for Divine service, which is performed once every Sunday morning or afternoon, alternately with Long Marston.  The Baptists have a small chapel.  The principal landowners are Baron Lionel de Rothschild and James Grange, esq.  The area is 690 acres; the population of Wilstone, with Little Tring and Tring Ford in 1871, was 537.

Parish Clerk, Thomas Waring.

Letters by messenger from Tring. Pillar box cleared at 5.40 p.m. week days; Sundays at 11.10 a.m.
National School, Miss Mary Jane Pierce, mistress.


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Official Establishments, Local Institutions, &c.


POST & MONEY ORDER & TELEGRAPH OFFICE, Savings Bank & Government Annuity & Insurance Ofiice, High street. — Henry Mason Nicholson, postmaster.  Letters arrive from all parts at 9 a.m.; from London & the South at 10 p.m.; from the North at 4.30 a.m.; deliveries at 7 a.m. 9.10 a.m. & 6.15 p.m.  Dispatches to London & the South & to the North & Scotland at 7.10 a.m.; to London only at 11 a.m. & 3.40 p.m.; general dispatch at 8.15 p.m.; final dispatch to London at 9.30 p.m.

LOCAL BOARD. — Wm-. Brown, chairman J. M. Shugar, High street, clerk.

INSURANCE AGENTS : —
Briton Medical & General, J. M. Shugar, High street
Imperial Fire, W. Humphrey, Park street
Norwich Union, F. Marsh, High street
Protector Endowment, J. Amsden, Park street
Sovereign Life, H. Chapman
Sun, Brown & Foulkes, High street

PUBLIC ESTABLISHMENTS: —
Assembly Room, Akeman st. Henry Tom kins, proprietor
Commercial Hall, Brown & Foulkes, proprietor
Excise Oflice, ‘Rose & Crown,’ High street
Stamp Ofiice; High street, Ebenezer Charles Bird

PUBLIC OFFICERS: —
Certifying Surgeon of Factories, Edward Pope, High st.
Inspector of Nuisances, Wm. Bains, Western road
Lessee of the Market House, John Woodman
Medical Officer (Union) for Tring, Richard Nicholson Lipscomb, High street
Registrar of Births, Deaths & Marriages for Tring District, Mark Young,
    Prospect house; Deputy, James Putnam. High street
Rate Collector, John Amsden, Park street
Relieving Officer for Great Berkhampstead Union, Garnet Jones, King street
Superintendent of Fire Brigade, Wm. Emery, Frogmore street
Vestry Clerk. A. T. Parkes, High street

PLACES OF WORSHIP: —
SS. Peter & Paul (Parish) Church, Rev. Arthur Frederick Pope, M.A. vicar;
    Rev. Wm. Walford & Rev. James Jamett, curates
All Saints Church, Long Marston, Rev. Masters, M.A. vicar
Baptist Chapels (2) in Akeman street
Baptist Chapel, Frogmore street
Baptist Chapel, New mill, Rev. Henry Bradford
Primitive Methodist Chapel, Langdon street

SCHOOL: —
National, West end, Henry Hobson, master; Miss Jane Sparrow, mistress;
    Miss Emlly Sandon, infants’ mistress

CONVEYANCE. — Omnibus from the ‘Rose & Crown,’ High street, to Tring (Aldbury parish)
    Railway station, several times daily

CARRIERS TO: —
    AYLESBURY — Crook, from ‘Bell,’ Thursday
    HEMEL HEMPSTEAD — Crook, Wednesday, returning Thursday
    LONDON — Chaplin & Horne, from Stevens’, Brook street, daily, per railway, Sunday excepted.


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TRING
 

PRIVATE RESIDENTS

Andrews Mrs. Akeman street
Baker Rev, Arthur [Baptist], Park st.
    west
Bradford Rev. Henry [Baptist],
Frogmore street
Brown John, High street
Brown William, Beech grove
Butcher Frederick, Frogmore house
Butcher George, High street
Butcher Miss, The Laurels
Chambers James, Western road
Crouch Frederick, Park street west
De Rothschild Nathaniel Meyer, Tring
    park
Easter Henry, Western road
Elliman Mrs. Akeman street
Foulkes Septimus Gifford, Hastoe house
Griffin Mrs. The Elms, Western road
Hedges John, Western road
Heybourne Mrs. Western road
Jamett Rev. James [curate], Park st
Jenney Miss, Western road
Jenney William Stewart, J.P., Drayton
    lodge, Western road
Jolly John, Western road
Kendell Mrs. King street
Lipscomb Richard Nicholson, High st
Little Thos. Grange villa, Western rd
Mead Mrs. The Laurels
Pickburn Thomas, Akeman street
Piddington Mrs. Albert street
Pope Edward, High street
Pope Henry, Park street
Shugar John Merritt, Park street
Southernwood Thomas, High street
Sutton George E. G. Grange villa,
    Western road ,
Walford Rev. Wm. [curate], Park st
Woodman Miss, Clifton house

COMMERCIAL

Abraham Jas. beer retlr. Frogmore st
Adams Henry, fellmonger, Frogrnore st
Amsden John, coal merchant, Park st
Anderton Samuel, toll clerk
Baldwin James, tailor, High street
Barber Benj. grocer & beer retailer,
    Akeman street
Barber Chas. blacksmith, Akeman st
Barber Edmund, wood turner & painter,
    Akeman street
Barber Geo. beer retlr. Western road
Batchelor John, brewer, Akeman street,
    & farmer, Silk Mill farm
Batchelor Sml. shopkeeper, Akeman st
Becket Henry, Old Robin Hood,
    Brook street
Bedford John, shoe maker, Albert street
Bird Ebenezer Chas. stationer, High st
Birdsey Frederick, butcher, King st
Bly John, shopkeeper, Frogmore street
Bly Wm. horse dealer, Frogmore street
Boddy John, fruiterer & confectioner,
    Akeman street
Bradshaw Sml. watch & clk.mkr. High st
Brandon John, cabinet mkr. Akeman st
Brandon Thos. shoe maker, Akeman st
Brinkman Wm. (Mrs.), cooper, New rd

Brittain Philip, furniture dlr. High st
Brown & Foulkes, land agents, sur-
    veyors & auctioneers, High street
Brown John, brewer, wine & spirit mer
    malstr.& agent for Barclay’s stout &
    Allsopp’s ales,Tring brewery, High st
Budd Alex. King’s Arms, King street
Budd Jos. marine store dlr. Akeman st
Bull Charles, baker, Charles street
Burgess John, berlin wool & canvas
    manufacturer, Lower Dunsley
Burr John Wargent, hair drsr. Akeman st
Butcher Thos. & Sons, bankers, High st
    branches at Aylesbury & Chesham,
    Bucks; draw on Dimsdale, Fowler &
    Barnard, London
Butcher John William, fishmonger &
    poulterer, High street
Camp Ann (Mrs.) dress mkr.Akeman st
Carter Chas. wood & coal dlr. King st
Cato Jas. canvas manufctr. Charles st
Cato Wm. canvas manufr. Park st. west
Cavill James, linen draper, Frogmore st
Chapman Alfred, beer retailer & marine
    store dealer, Frogmore street
Chapman John, shoe maker, Albert st
Chappell Chas. carpenter, builder &
    stone mason, Western road
Cherry James, superintendent at Grand
    Junction Canal Co.’s Wks. Bulbourne
Clark Geo. boot & shoe maker, High st
Clark George, watch & clock maker,
    Akeman street
Clark Jas. Bricklyrs Arms, Western. rd
Clark James, tailor, Akeman street
Clark Joseph, farmer, Parkley Hill farm
Clement & Sons, watch & clock makers,
    High street
Corkett Edmund, beer retlr. New mill
Cosier James, tailor, Frogmore street
Crawley James, wheelwright & iron-
    founder, Western road
Crouch Benjamin, farmer, Miswell
Crouch Frederick, farmer, Oak grove
Cyster Charles, beer retailer, New mill
Darvill James, farmer, Parsonage farm
Dawe James, farmer, Tring Town farm
Edwin Edmund, confectioner & tailor,
    High street
Elliman Thomas Grifiin, draper, High st
Emery William, brewer, Frogmore st
Evans David & Co. silk throwsters
    (John Akers, manager), Brook street,
    & silkmen, 1 Wood street, Cheapside,
    London e.c.
Fincher Charles, carpenter, Park st
Fincher Henry, bricklayer, Park street
Fleet Thomas, steam threshing machine
    proprietor, Park street west
Foskett David, shoe maker, Akeman st
Foskett William, boot & shoe ma. High st
Fossett Richard, boot & shoe maker,
    Frogmore street
Fountain Mark, tripe dresser & sausage
    maker, High street
Fulks James, farmer, Hastoe
Glover & Grace, seedsmen, High street,
Glover Sarah (Miss), ladies’ school Western
Glover Thomas, grocer, High street

Goodson Thomas, blacksmith & farrier,
    High street
Gost Emma (Miss), milliner, Akeman st
Gower James, coal dealer, Western rd
Gower John, shoe maker, Western rd
Grace Charles, ironmonger, Akeman st
Grace Letitia. (Mrs.), baker, Akeman st
Grace Thomas, maltster & corn dealer,
    Akeman street
Green John, straw dyer, King street
Greening Joseph White, frmr. Western rd
Griffin Ann (Mrs.), dress ma. Akeman st
Griffin William, cabinet maker & under-
    taker, High street
Grover Wm. miller & farmer, Gold fields
Gurney Joseph, beer retailer, Akeman st
Hanshaw Maria (Miss), milliner & dress
    maker, Akeman street
Hedges John, plumber & glazier,
    Parsonage lane
Heybourne William, farmer, West
    Leigh farm
Hill Emma (Miss), dress ma. Akeman st
Hill George, tailor, Western road
Hillsdon John, millwright, King street
Hobbs James, stone mason, Western rd
Honour James, builder, Akeman street
Horn Christopher, grocer, Charles st
Horne Mary( Mrs.), dress ma. Akeman st
Horwood Charles, farmer, Wick farm
Humphreys William, boot & shoe maker,
    King street
Humphreys William, builder, Park st
Hunt George, farm bailiff to H. G.
    Williams, esq. Pendley
Jeffery George, chemist & druggist,
    High street
Johnson William, butcher, High street
Jones Garnett, relieving officer, King st
Jones James, grocer, High street
Kindell Francis, boot & shoe maker,
    Akeman street
King John, rope ma. Park street west
King Thomas, baker, Western road
Kingham Frederick, printer, Brook st
Kingham Henry, farmer, Little Tring
Kingham John, grocer, Brook street
Kingham William, grocer, High street
Knight Edward Craddock, decorator,
    gas fitter & plumber by appointment
    to the Water works, High street
Lake Benjamin, boot & shoe maker,
    Akeman street
Lake Thomas, boot & shoe maker,
    Akeman street
Liddington Ann (Mrs.), beer retailer,
    Frogmore street
Liddington James, beer retailer, High st
Lidding Seabrook, maltster & farmer,
    New mill
Liddington Thomas James, corn dealer,
    Frogmore street
Lipscomb Richard Nicholson, surgeon,
    High street
Little Thos. jun. farmer, Tring grange
Lloyd Wm. Castle, Park street west
Marcham Joseph, gardener & seedsman,
    Brook street
Marsh Frederick, chemist, High street
Maunders Robert, baker, High street

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Mead Albert, coal merchant & wharfinger
    & farmer, Long Marston &
    Dudswell, Tring wharf
Mead John, butcher & farmer, High street
Mead Thos. miller & farmr. Tring wharf
Mechanics’ Institute (Henry Dawe, sec.),
    High street
Morgan Caroline (Mrs.) Rose & Crown
    commercial inn & posting house,
    High street
Moulder Joseph, boot & shoe maker,
    Frogmore street
Newens Mary (Mrs), The Harrow,
    Akeman street
Nicholson Henry Mason, stationer, &
    post office, High street
Nicholson Thos. Rd. draper, High st
Norris Joseph, Bell inn, & hair dresser,
    High street
Oshorn David, carpenter, King street
Osborn Wm. baker & shopkpr. High st
Pangborn George, builder, Albert st
Parker William, beer retailer, New mill
Parkes Alexander Thomas, auctioneer
    &c. High street
Parrott Geo. coach builder, Western rd
Pearce Chas. linen draper, High street
Penn John, Commercial, High street
Phillips Geo. Fredk. grocer, High st
Pitkin Charles, saddler & harness
    maker, High street
Pope Edward, surgeon, High street
Press John, smith, Akeman street
Price Thomas, farmer, Little Tring
Prouse & Burman, saddlers & harness
    makers, High street
Putman Ann (Mrs.), baker, Frogmore
    street
Putman James, baker & corn dealer,
    High street
Putman John, grocer, High street
Putman Thomas, baker, Akeman st
Rance George, grocer, Langdon street
Rance Jas. cattle dealer, Akeman street
Randall Edward, dealer in plaiting straw,
    Akeman street
Randall John, beer retailer, Akeman st
Rolfe Charles, baker, Akeman street
Rolfe Henry, coal dealer, Akeman st
Sallery George, butcher, Akeman street
Sallery Mary (Miss), straw bonnet maker,
    High street
Sallery Samuel, grocer, Akeman street
Saw John, beer retailer, Frogmore st

Sexton William, herbalist, Akeman st
Sharman Joseph, clothier, High street
Shugar Jim. Merritt, solicitor, High st
Sills George, George, Frogmore street
Simmonds John, Royal Oak, Akeman st
Skidmore Enoch, Queens Arms,
    New mill
Smith Charles, Britannia, Western rd
Smith David, shopkeeper, New mill
Smith Edward, tailor, Akeman street
Smith Edwin, carpenter & builder,
    Brook street
Snell John, builder & contractor,
    Akeman street
Southernwood Eleazar (Mrs) (exors.
    of), farmer, Tring grove
Stevens Henry, shoe manufacturer,
    Albert street & High street
Stevens Samuel, grocer, High street
Stevenson Wm. shopkpr. Western rd
Stratford Rd. dlr. in plaiting straw, Hg. st
Thorp Robert & Son, grocers, High
    street; & at Aylesbury
Timms Cyrus, fishmonger, Frogmore st
Tompkins Thomas & Henry, ironmongers
    & tin plate workers, High st
Tompkins Thomas, tailor, Western road
Tring Agricultural Association( Wm.
    Brown, esq. hon. sec.), High street
Tring Association for Prosecution of
    Felons
(A. T. Parkes, sec.), High st
Tring Co-operative Industrial &
    Provident Soc. Lim.
(John Rickett,
    manager); stores, Charles street
Tring Gas & Coke Co. (John Amsden, sec.)
    Brook street
Wade John, shopkeeper, High street
Walpole Alfred, inland revenue officer,
    Western road
Webb James, Grand Junction Arms,
    Bulbourne
West Herts Farmers’ Association,
    (S. G. Foulkes, esq. sec.), High st
Wheeler Geo. statnr. & fancy repos. High st
Wilson Ruth (Mrs.), preparatory school,
    High street
Woodhouse William, engineer to the
    Grand Junction Canal Water Works,
    Little Tring
Woodman John, Green Man, High st
Woodman Mary (Miss), seminary,
    Clifton house
Woodman Thomas, farmer, Dunsley
Wright George, butcher, Akeman street

Wright Jesse, butcher, High street
Young Mark, academy, Park st. west
Young Matthew, shopkeeper, Henry st

LONG MARSTON

Masters Rev. William Caldwall, M.A.
    Vicarage

COMMERCIAL

Chapman John, farmer, Red house
Cook Thomas, farmer, Betlow
Eustace Edwd. frmr. Whittle Chapel frm
Fountain Charles, farmer, Betlow
Funge James, beer retailer
Gregory Charles, farmer
Gregory Henry, butcher
Gregory Joseph, farmer, Chapel
Gregory Joseph, jun. baker
Griffin James, farmer, Tring folly
Jellis David, Rose & Crown
Jolly Ambrose, mealman
Kempster William, shopkeeper
Kingsley Thomas, farmer, Boorscroft
Mullis Philip, shoe maker
Newens Edward, cattle dealer
Orchard William, Old Queen’s Head
Reed Richard, baker
Rodwell Job, farmer
Southernwood Peter, farmer
Woodward Charles, White Hart
Woodward George, farmer

WILSTONE

Pratt Thomas

COMMERCIAL

Chappin Robert, boot maker
Collings William, butcher
Cyster William, farm bailiff to Joseph
Greening, esq. Chapel farm
Goodson Thomas, jun. blacksmith
Grange James, jun. land surveyor
Grange James, sen. farmer
Gregory George, farmer
Hanwell George, baker
Mead Thomas, farmer, Gubblecot
Newman Elizh. (Mrs), wheelwright
Newman William, farmer, Gubblecot
Rodwell Job, beer retailer
Southernwood Thomas, farmer
Tomlin Joseph, shoe maker
Waring Philip, beer retailer
Waring Thomas, Half Moon
White John, baker
Woodman Henry, farmer


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HERTFORDSHIRE IN 1874
 

HERTFORDSHIRE, sometimes shortened into Herts, is an inland shire, in the south-east of England, surrounded by Middlesex, Essex, Cambridgeshire, Bedfordshire, and Buckinghamshire: it is of irregular form, of no peculiar natural features, and lies between 51° 36’ and 52° 5’ of north latitude, and 0° 13’ east and 0° 45’ west longitude.  It is one of the smallest shires in England, both for size and population, though by no means inconsiderable: its area is about 610 square miles, or 391,141 acres, and its population in 1871 was 192,226: it is only the thirty-fifth shire in England in size.  Although the county town is within 20 miles of London, yet the shire hardly partakes of the metropolitan character, but is almost exclusively agricultural.  The greatest length, which is from Royston to Rickmansworth, from north-east to south-west, is 39 miles; and the greatest breadth, from Hitchin to Waltham Cross, 26 miles.

Hertfordshire belongs to the London chalk basin.  The extreme south consists of London clay, then comes the plastic clay; but the northern part of the shire, beyond Sawbridgeworth, Ware, Hertford, Hatfield, St. Albans, and Rickmansworth, is chalk.  The district is wavy, but can hardly be said to partake of a hilly character, the greatest rise being in the chalk downs, about 908 feet high.  These chalk downs are the continuation of the Chiltern Hills, and bound the shire to the extreme north.  The climate is mild, and the country, being well wooded and tilled, is picturesque.  The mineral characteristics of the district are neither varied nor important, and the medicinal springs are few; they are at Barnet, Northaw, Cutlley, and Hemel Hempstead.  Chalk is burnt for lime, and bricks are made.

Hertford is well watered by numerous and navigable streams, on which are many mills.  The rivers are principally small feeders of the Thames, except those in the north, which flow towards the Ouse.  The Stort forms the south-east boundary for a considerable distance, being navigable in its whole length, and passes by Bishop Stortford and Sawbridgeworth to join the Lea.  The Lea traverses the county from west to east, rising at Leagrave, in Bedfordshire, and pursuing a total course till its junction with the Thames, of 50 miles; it is navigable at Hertford; entering the shire near Harpenden, it passes near Hatfield to below Hertingfordbury, where it receives the Maran, or Mimram, a mill stream: at Hertford it receives the Beane, a mill stream, flowing from north to south, and soon after the Rib, also flowing from north to south, turning many mills, receiving the Quin, and passing Buntingford: the Lea next receives the Ash, and ultimately the Stort, and pursues its navigable course along the eastern border of the county, by Hoddesdon, to Waltham Abbey.  The management of the navigable river Lea is vested in trustees under several Acts of Parliament; the funds, which are considerable, arising from tolls, are wholly laid out in the improvement and maintenance of the navigation: in 1850 a bill passed for improving this navigation.  The Colne, the other chief river of the south, rises near Hatfield, and proceeds to Colney Street, where it receives a small brook; and a little lower down, the Verlam, or Muse, which passes by St. Albans, turning some mills: it then passes Watford and Rickmansworth, and receives the Gade, which is fed by the Bulbourn from Berkhampstead, and soon after the Chess.  The Gade and the Lower Colne are nearly absorbed by the Grand Junction Canal.   Some of the head springs of the Thame rise near Tring.  A feeder of the Ivel rises near Hexton.  The Hiz, passing near Hitchin, the Oughton, and the Pirral, are feeders of the Ouse, flowing north into Bedfordshire, and are inconsiderable streams.  The Rhea, or Rhee, arises near Ashwell, and is a feeder of the Cam.

The New River is an artificial cut, made to convey water to London; it was begun in 1608, and runs along the valley of the Lea, taking its chief supplies from Amwell and Chadwell, two springs near Hertford.

The Grand Junction Canal comes into Hertfordshire near Tring, and soon enters the valley of the Gade, and afterwards that of the Colne, which it follows through Middlesex to West Drayton, passing by Tring, Berkhampstead, Hemel Hempstead, Watford, and Rickmansworth, with branches to Aylesbury and Wendover.

The railways are the London and North Western, Great Northern, Midland and Great Eastern (Cambridge) line.  The London and North Western proceeds through West Hertfordshire, passing by Bushey, Watford (with branches to Rickmansworth and St. Albans), Kings Langley, Boxmoor, or Hemel Hempstead, Berkhampstead, and Tring, at each of which places is a station; just beyond Tring is the Aylesbury branch; the Dunstable branch touches the north border.  The Great Northern Railway, opened in 1850, runs through Mid-Hertfordshire, by Barnet, Potter’s Bar, Hatfield, Welwyn, Stevenage, and Hitchin to Shefford, sending off branches from Hatfield, one by Cole Green and Hertingfordbury to Hertford; another to Harpenden, Luton, Dunstable, and Leighton Buzzard, and a third to St. Albans; from Hitchin is a branch by Baldock, Ashwell and Royston to Cambridge.  The Midland Railway Company’s line from St. Pancras runs between the Great Northern and North Western lines, passing through St. Albans to Luton and Bedford, where it joins the original line; from Bedford is a branch to Hitchin, where it joins the Great Northern Railway.  A railway is in course of construction from Harpenden to Boxmoor, connecting the London and North Western and Midland Railways.  The Great Eastern Railway (Cambridge line) passes through East Hertfordshire, by Waltham Abbey, Cheshunt, Broxbourne (Hoddesdon), Roydon, Burnt Mill, Harlow, Sawbridgeworth, and Bishop’s Stortford, at each of which is a station: a branch runs from Broxbourne to Hertford, with stations at Rye House, St. Margaret’s, and Ware.  Another branch, called the Buntingford line, runs from St. Margaret’s to Buntingford.  The Hertford, Luton, and Dunstable line connects the Great Eastern (at. Hertford) with the Great Northern Railway near Hatfield; thence there is a line to Luton, which connects it with the Midland and London and North Western lines.  By these railways there is communication with London and all parts of the country.

Hertfordshire is most known for its husbandry, and for the growth of the best white wheat; the shire yields, besides grains, turnips, vegetables and hay for the London market; also apples, cherries, currents, and strawberries.  There is a good deal of coppice and wood.  The nurseries are famous for the growth of roses, which carry off a great many of the prizes in London.  Many cattle, sheep, pigs, and poultry are fed for London.

The manufactures are — straw plait, silk, and paper.  The malt trade, brewing, tanning, currying, parchment making; brick, tile and pipe making and pottery; canvas making and weaving, sail making, coach making, lace making, and type founding are carried on.  The number of millers is large.

Herts is in the Home Circuit.  There is a separate commission of the peace for St. Albans liberty.  Hertfordshire returns three members to Parliament; the borough of Hertford formerly returned two, but by the “Representation of the People Act, 1867,” it now returns one.  St.  Albans is disfranchised.  The shire forms the archdeaconry of St. Albans, in the diocese of Rochester and province of Canterbury, and is divided into the following rural deaneries — Baldock, Barnet, Bennington, Berkhampstead, Bishop’s Stortford, Buntingford, Hertford, Hitchin, St. Albans, Ware, Watford and Welwyn.

Hertford is the shire town and place of election; the sessions and assizes are holden there.  At St. Albans sessions are held for the liberty of St. Alban.

Hertford and St. Albans are boroughs. The Market-towns are, including these, fifteen — namely, Ashwell, Baldock, Barnet, Berkhampstead, Bishop’s Stortford, Hatfield, Hemel Hempstead, Hitchin, Hoddesdon, Royston, Tring, Ware, and Watford.  The markets of Buntingford and Rickmansworth have fallen into disuse. Other towns are Cheshunt, Welwyn, Stevenage, King’s Langley, Braughing, Offley, Ashwell, Sawbridgeworth and Hadham.

The population of Herts was :—



The history of Hertford presents few features of importance.  After the Euskardians had been driven out, it was held by the Welch and Belgians.  At the time of Cæsar’s inroad, it seems to have belonged to the Belgian tribe of the Cateuchlani, and perhaps the Trinobantes held part.  The Romans having taken the country, had a capital municipium at Verularnium, being one of their chief towns in Britain.  Watling Street passed through it, and roads branched all around.  In the year 61, Boadicea, at the head of a number of British savages, captured this town and slaughtered the population.  By the Romans, Herts was included in the province of Flavia Cæsariensis; they had stations at Ad Fines, on Ermin Street (probably at Braughing), and at Bishop’s Stortford, Royston and Cheshunt: on Ickneild Street, at Wilhury Hill, they had a camp.

On the English taking the country, it seems to have first formed a Commonwealth under the name of the North Saxons, and was afterwards shared between the kingdoms of Essex, or the East Saxons, and Mercia or the Mid-English; and it is thought the late boundary between the dioceses of London and Lincoln formed the boundary of the kingdom.  The English settlers were mostly of the same clans as those in Middlesex and Essex.  The great kings of the Middle English dwelt in the shire.  It afterwards took the name of Hartingfordshire, from the tribe of the Hartings, who settled in its head town.  It is remarkable for the number of buries, showing it was thickly settled by the English.  There is a bury in each township, commonly a mile away from the old homestead, now the town or hamlet.  Many places are named after the Danes.  In 896 a severe contest took place in the county between King Alfred and the Danes.  In the wars of the Roses three great battles were fought here: in 1455 at St. Albans, when the Lancasterians were vanquished; in 1461 at St. Albans, when the Yorkists were overthrown; and in 1468 at Barnet, when the Lancasterians were defeated.

The following is a list of the parishes in each union :—

Some of the unions extend to other counties 5 some parishes in Herts included in unions in Middlesex, Bucks and Essex.




Herts is divided into eight hundreds, which are very much scattered, and 138 parishes and townships.

The following is a list of the hundreds, with the places comprised in each :—
.
Hundred of Braughing :— Bishop’s Stortford, Braughing, Eastwick, Gilston, Hunsdon, Sawbridgeworth, Standon, Stanstead Abbots, Thorley, Thundridge, Ware, Westmill, and Widford.

Hundred of Broadwater :— Aston, Ayot St. Lawrence, Ayot St. Peter, Baldock, Bennington, Bishops Hatfield, Datchworth, Digswell, Graveley, Great Munden, Great Wymondley, Knebworth, Letchworth, Little Munden, Little Wymondley, Sacomb, Stevenage, Totteridge, Walkern, Watton, Welwyn, Weston, and Willian.

Hundred of Cashio :— Abbots Langley, Aldenham (part of), Brantfield, Chipping or High Barnet, Codicote, East Barnet, Elstree, Hexton, Newnham, Northaw, Norton, Offley, Rickmansworth, Ridge, St. Michael (St. Albans), St. Paul’s Walden, St. Peter (St. Albans), St. Stephen (St. Albans), Sandridge, Sarratt, Shephall, and Watford.

Hundred of Dacorum :— Aldbury, Aldenham, (part of), Bovingdon, Bushey, Flamstead, Flaunden, Great Berkhampstead, Great Gaddesden, Harpenden, Hemel Hempstead, King’s Langley, Little Gaddesden, North Mimms, Northchurch, Puttenham, Redbourn, Shenley, Tring, Wheathamstead, and Wigginton.

Hundred of Edwinstree :— Aldbury, Anstey, Aspenden, Barkway, Barley, Brent Pelham, Buckland, Furneaux; Pelham, Great or Much Hadham, Great Hormead, Layston, Little Hadham, Little Hormead, Mesden, Nuthampstead, Stocking Pelham, Throcking, and Wyddial.

Hundred of Hertford :— Bayford, Bengeo, Brickendon, Broxbourne, Cheshunt, Essendon, Great Amwell, Hertingfordhury, Hoddesdon, Little Amwell, Little Berkhampstead, Stanstead St. Margaret, Stapleford, Tewin, and Wormley.

Hundred of Hitchin :— Hitchin, Ickleford, Ippollitts, Kimpton, King’s Walden, Lilley, and Pirton.

Hundred of Odsey :— Ardeley or Yardley, Ashwell, Broadfield, Bygrave, Caldecot, Clothall, Cottered, Hinxworth, Kelshall, Radwell, Reed, Royston (part of), Rushden, Sandon, Therfield, and Wellington.

The Lunatic Asylum for three counties, Hunts, Beds, and Herts, is at Stotfold, in Bedfordshire.

A Reformatory Institution for the county was built by subscription, in 1857, at Crouch Field near Chapmore End, Bengeo: it is a commodious building, capable of holding 50 inmates, who are instructed and trained to habits of industry, and also employed in cultivating 40 acres of land surrounding and belonging to the establishment: it is supported by voluntary subscriptions and a Government grant: James Fish, superintendent; Mrs. Eliza Fish, matron.

The West Herts County Infirmary, supported entirely by voluntary contributions, is at Marlowes, south of Hemel Hempstead, and was erected in 1830 by the late Sir John Saunders Sebright, bart, who also endowed it with £100 per annum, for the stipend of a house surgeon, and in 1847 added a donation of £8,000 to the uses of the establishment: in 1863 a new male ward was added, and in 1865 one for females, making up together 40 beds: Edward Holland Ambler, sen., H. H. Hobson, and D. C. Wotton, hon. surgeons; Barnard Holt, consulting surgeon; Robert Pitts, house surgeon.

The Hertford General Infirmary at Hertford was erected in 1832: William Odell, house surgeon and secretary; Rev. Robert Rutland, M.A., chaplain.

The North Herts and South Beds Infirmary is situated at Hitchin; Oswald Foster, Richard R. Shilitoe, and Charles J. Grellett, surgeons; Samuel Lucas, hon. secretary; John Bombroff; dispenser.

The County Gaol is a brick building on the Ware road, Hertford, calculated to hold, under the improved arrangements, 130 prisoners: Major Frederick George Hankin, governor; Rev. Henry Demain, M.A., chaplain; John Tasker Evans, jun, medical officer.

There is also a Gaol at St. Albans for that borough and liberty, erected in 1866, at a cost of about £20,000: it is a brick building, and contains ninety-nine cells, governor’s house, and house for the warder: the chapel, which is on the north side, is handsome, spacious, and lofty; John Deayton, governor; Rev. Philip Utton- Brown, B.A., chaplain; J. T. N. Lipscomb, surgeon.

Members of Parliament for the County. — Hon. Henry Frederick Cowper, Wrest park, Beds, and 4, St. James's square, and Travellers’, Brooks’, and White’s Clubs, London, s.w.; Abel Smith, esq., Woodhall park, Hertford; and 35, Chesham-place, and Carlton and Travellers’ Clubs, London, s.w.; Thomas Frederick Halsey, esq., Great Gaddesden place, Hemel Hempstead, 73 Eaton place, and Boodle’s, Carlton, and United University clubs, London s.w.

There are four coroners for the county, with separate districts, viz., Henry Day, Hemel Hempstead; Thomas Sworder, Hartford: Francis Shillitoe, Hitchin; and Henry Brabant, St. Albans.




 

COUNTY POLICE.
HEAD QUARTERS, HERTFORD.
Chief Constable, Lieut.-Col. A. Robertson

BISHOP STORTFORD DIVISION.—Superintendent, W. E. Ryder, Bishop’s Stortford

BUNTINFORD DIVISION.—Inspector, Richard Oliver, Buntinford

GREAT BERKHAMPSTEAD DIVISION. — Inspector, G. Goodyear, Great Berkhampstead

HATFIELD DIVISION. — Inspector, John Bourne, Hatfield

HEMEL HEMPSTEAD DIVISION. — Superintendent, Wm. Isgate, Hemel Hempstead

HERTFORD DIVISION.—Superintendent, Henry Hunt, Hertford

HITCHIN DIVISION. — Inspector, Geo. Young, Hitchin

ROYSTON DIVISION. — Superintendent, Geo. Coxhedge, Royston

STEVENAGE DIVISION. — Inspector, John Reynolds, Stevenage

WARE DIVISION. — Inspector, Thomas Bygrave, Ware

WATFORD DIVISION. — Inspector, Stephen Chapman, Watford


NOTE. —This county is divided into 11 divisions of about 50 square miles each.  The number of constables to each varies according to circumstances.  A portion of the county is within the Metropolitan Police District

HERTFORD BOROUGH. — Head Constable, Alfred H. Jarrett

ST. ALBANS BOROUGH. — Head Constable, W. J. Pike


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